Nissan Micra Repair service Manual

The Nissan Micra, acknowledged inside Latin America plus inside nearly all of Asia because the Nissan March is a supermini yielded by the Japanese automaker Nissan because 1982.In Japan, the March changed the Japanese-market Nissan Cherry plus was exclusive

Nissan Micra 1993 2002 Haynes Service Repair Manual UK

car repair service maintenance manual book
Nissan Micra 1993 to 2002 Haynes repair manual NEW Get other Nissan repair manuals here (Hardcover 256 pages).Haynes (UK) Publication covering Nissan Micra series K11 including automatic transmission (N-CVT) and special/limited editions built from 1993 - 2002 Engines (petrol): 1.0 litre (998 cc) CG10DE 4 cyl 1.3 litre (1275 cc) CG13DE 4 cyl 1.4 litre (1348 cc) CG14DE 4 cyl Inside this manual: Basic maintenance: simple weekly checks Service your car: complete step-by-step guide Fault finding: pinpoint specific problems easily Roadside emergencies: how to deal with them Pass the MOT: step-by-step test checks Reference section: includes a detailed glossary Braking System: safelty checks repairs Fuel ignition systems: explained Electrical system: fault find

Nissan Micra K12 Petrol 2003-2010 Haynes Service Repair Manual

car repair service maintenance manual book
Nissan Micra K12 Petrol 2003 - 2010 Haynes Owners Service Repair Manual covers: Although the manual doesn t specifically cover the facelifted version of the Micra sold in Australia it is currently the closest thing available .Engines covered: 1.0 litre (998cc) CR10DE 1.2 litre (1240cc) CR12DE 1.4 litre (1386cc) CR14DEDOES NOT cover 1.6 litre petrol models diesel models the C+C Coupe Convertible or facelifted range introduced to the UK October 2007.Transmission covered: Type JH3 5-speed manual Type 3CX1E or 3CX3A 4-speed automaticContents: Living with Your Nissan Micra K12 Roadside Repairs Weekly Checks Lubricants Fluids Tyre Pressures Routine Maintenance Service Engine In-Car Repair Procedures Engine Removal and General Overhaul Procedures Cool

Nissan Micra 1983 1993 Haynes Service Repair Manual

car repair service maintenance manual book
Get other Nissan repair manuals hereNissan Micra 1983 - 1993 Haynes Owners Service Repair Manual covers: Hatchback (K10 series) Including Special / Limited Editions.Engines Covered: 1.0 litre (988cc) and 1.2 litre (1235cc) 8-valve Engines.Does NOT cover K11 series with 16-valve engines introduced January 1993 Inside this manual you will find: Routine Maintenance tune-up procedures engine repair cooling and heating air-conditioning fuel and exhaust emissions control ignition brakes suspension and steering electrical systems and wiring diagrams.Haynes repair manuals can save you money on maintenance and repair bills. Step-by-step procedures and illustrations guide you through every job from basic maintenance and troubleshooting to complete teardown rebuild.Information on Repair and Service ManualsNote that repair manuals are normally produced for models sold in a particular country.Differences in specification can exist between models sold in different countries and items such as installed engines can differ.Please check that the manual will cover your model before purchase and

The Nissan Micra, acknowledged inside Latin America plus inside nearly all of Asia because the Nissan March is a supermini yielded by the Japanese automaker Nissan because 1982.
In Japan, the March changed the Japanese-market Nissan Cherry plus was exclusive with Nissan Japanese dealership network Nissan Cherry Store till 1999, whenever the "Cherry" network was combined into Nissan Red Stage till 2003. Until Nissan started marketing badge engineered kei vehicles from different Japanese producers, the March was Nissan's smallest car, plus wasn't renamed plus available at alternative Japanese Nissan dealership networks.

The authentic Micra was introduced inside October 1982 because a challenger with the Honda City, plus Toyota Starlet. It was intended with substitute the Nissan Cherry because the company's rival inside the supermini sector, because the Cherry model available inside Europe had slowly become bigger with every successive generation. In Japan, it was exclusive with Nissan Cherry shop places, because the Japanese marketplace Cherry was renamed March. The bodystyle was initially crafted for Fiat because a substitution for the Fiat 127. It was introduced inside the European marketplace inside 1983, plus inside Canada inside 1984 for the 1985 model year. Although Nissan was gradually phasing out the Datsun name, a little "Datsun" appeared found on the tailgate for the initially 2 years, plus inside certain European markets, the auto was recognised as the "Datsun-Nissan Micra". The Datsun badges had disappeared completely by the finish of 1984. The Micra was initially accessible with a very processed all-aluminium MA10S SOHC engine, developing 50PS or 55PS inside the excellent compression variation. It was equally accessible with either automatic or 5-speed gearbox, both of that were unusual inside a supermini at this time.
The model was revised inside June 1985, identifiable by the somewhat bigger back lamp clusters. The Japanese marketplace saw the first of the initially Micra Turbo/MA10ET, where Nissan grafted a turbocharger with the tiny 1.0 L engine. Another facelift came inside March 1989, that consisted of several minor updates including deeper bumpers, a modern front grille, minor interior details, plus headlight changes. It furthermore saw the introduction of a electronically controlled carburettor, the bigger MA12 1.2 L engine with 60 PS along with a 5-door hatchback adaptation.

Facelift version
In 1988, Nissan introduced a limited 10,000 device run of its homologated Nissan 1989 Micra Superturbo. Both this as well as the 1988 Micra R showcased the same very advanced sequential substance charged engine inside an all-aluminium straight-4 930 cc 8-valve 4-cylinder Nissan MA MA09ERT device which yielded 110 PS JIS at 6400 rpm. This vehicle came with either a 3-speed automatic or 5-speed manual gearbox with viscous limited slip differential, and also choices including air conditioner plus electrical mirrors. The Micra Superturbo nonetheless holds the crown for the quickest creation Micra inside Nissan's history, with factory performance figures of 7.7 seconds with go from 0 with 100 km/h plus 15.5 seconds with run a quarter mile. It has a top speed of 180 km/h.
In 1989 a facelift Micra was introduced with body colored front grill plus increased equipment degrees.
The Micra's chassis spawned a amount of variations. The Be-1, established at the Tokyo Motor Show inside 1985, became a limited edition model with a more rounded bodyshape, plus just 10,000 were available. In 1987, the canvas-topped, retro hunting hatchback Pao was established plus available with the public inside 1989; 51,657 models were available. The canvas-topped Figaro coupé was unveiled at the same show inside 1989, however not introduced till 1991. Because need for the Figaro surpassed the 20,000 cars built, Nissan available the vehicle by lottery: winners may put orders for the auto. Despite being a JDM-only model, the Figaro is regarded as the many imported models of the K10 derivatives; its recognition amidst many star owners aided it earn cult status. The K10 ceased creation about 21 December 1992.
During its life, the Micra gained a advantageous standing for dependability plus economy. In 1995, it topped the little vehicle class inside a dependability study of 4 with six-year-old vehicles performed by the German Automobile Association, with 7.5 recorded breakdowns per 1,000 cars for four-year-old Micras plus 11.5 for six-year-old cars: this compared with 8.0 breakdowns per 1,000 vehicles for four-year-old Volkswagen Polos plus 15.3 for six-year-old Polos.
For the 1991 model year, a re-badged Nissan Sentra B12 entered Canada with substitute the Micra because the Nissan Sentra Classic following Nissan announced it wouldn't import the Micra with Canada following 1991. The Sentra Classics were integrated Mexico.

The MA10S is the engine chosen inside the K10 kind Nissan Micra. It has a hemi-head plus, unusually, the spark is fired following top dead centre due to the excellent flame speed inside a compact engine with this head shape. Compression inside the 50bhp variation was fairly low thus it was capable with run about 90 RON petrol where accessible.

A Hemi engine is an internal combustion engine inside that the rooftop of every cylinder's combustion room is of hemispherical shape.
With the hemispherical combustion room shape, the consumption plus exhaust valves are about opposite sides of the room, sending the combustion mixture flowing straight over the room. This shape is commonly called a "cross-flow" head. Important challenges inside the commercialization of motors using hemispherical chambers revolved about the shape of the valve actuation, and just how with create it efficient, effective, plus reliable at an acceptable expense. This complexity was referenced early inside Chrysler's development of their 1950s hemi engine: the head was referred with inside firm advertising because the Double Rocker head.
The traditional hemi shape has a combustion room where the best really is a hemisphere, for minimal heat reduction per device amount. This might provide too low a compression ratio except a really extended stroke were employed, thus generally the piston crown is domed thus it protrudes into the head at top dead centre, offering a room form more like the peel of half an orange. Such designs have not been found about manufacturing cars for a number of years.

The second-generation K11 was built plus established inside Japan inside early 1992, plus introduced inside Europe inside the 4th quarter of the year. It was driven by brand modern all-aluminium 1.0 L plus 1.3 L DOHC 16-valve machines, with 55 PS DIN plus 75 PS respectively, both with ECCS gas injection. It was the next Nissan model line with be yielded inside the UK at the NMUK plant, Washington Tyne-on-Wear. A diesel adaptation was available with all the 1.5 L PSA TUD marketplace inside Europe because Micra 1.5 D. CVT automatic transmission plus Power steering was an alternative about certain models, as well as the equipment list included safety qualities not normally obtainable in this marketplace segment: a toughened safety-cage plus side-impact door beams were standard plus pre-tensioning seat-belts along with a driver's air-bag were optional. However, the MK2 Micra scored just a small 2 stars inside Euro NCAP testing inside 1997. Airbags, antilock brakes, electrical windows, central locking plus air conditioner were because either standard equipment or choices about several models inside the Micra range. The European model range consisted of 1.0L plus LX, 1.3LX, SLX plus Super S. The auto shortly earned the European Car of the Year honor for 1993 as well as the Great Design Award together with the Car of the Year Japan honor inside 1993. This might spawn the V3 Award edition.
After minor changes inside 1996, inside 1998, six years following its release, the Micra received a facelift that saw the entire range receive force steering because standard.
There had been a Cabriolet unveiled at the Tokyo Motor Show inside 1995, however it wasn't available till August 1997, with an electrical top. These were yielded inside limited numbers for the Japanese Domestic Market just. But, much like the Nissan Figaro, certain have been imported into the UK unofficially. There was furthermore an property variation called the March Box, that was unveiled about November 1999, with a double folding back seat, together with an automatic transmission four-wheel drive model.

In late 1997, a facelift adaptation was introduced, plus was built from late 1997 till early 2003. Different engine models included the S plus SE. Just a limited units were yielded inside 1997, because almost all of them began inside 1998.

2000–2003 Nissan Micra K11C, front

22000–2003 Nissan Micra K11C, rear
The cumulative graphic changes within the initial models included a revised front grille plus headlights, redesigned front plus back bumpers, oval rather of round side repeater indicators, minor changes with internal controls, somewhat desaturated colors found on the back light lenses, a redesigned back wiper that rested horizontally rather of vertically, the centre significant level brake lamp being reduced inside size plus installed at the best of the back window, rather of found on the parcel shelf, along with a radio aerial repositioned within the top of the right-hand A-pillar with the center of the rooftop, towards the front or back depending about specification.
In late 2000, the authentic facelift was changed with a 2nd variation, theoretically being very synonymous. Changes included hot lights found on the bumper, an changed lower body, orange turn signals along with a completely redesigned interior. In 2001 Muji, the well-known Japanese "non-brand" issued a limited launch of 1,000 badgeless plus decontented Nissan Marches, just accessible online. It was intended because an exercise with test their internet marketing systems plus was available because the "Muji Car 1000". The rear seat is upholstered inside plastic, the hubcaps are minimal, as well as the automobile was just available inside "marble white". The Muji Car 1000 has a four-speed automatic transmission as well as the 1 litre CG10DE engine.
By late 2002, the fresh K12 was introduced. They were completely changed by K12 inside early 2003.

The upcoming adaptation of the Micra, the K12, was unveiled inside 2002 Paris Motor Show because the Nissan mm Concept. It was introduced with the Japanese marketplace inside early 2002 plus with Europe inside late 2002. The auto was radically redesigned: it showcased a new, 70 mm longer wheelbase plus an more curvy outdoor which was taller plus somewhat wider. Its many distinctive feature became a pair of prominent headlamps which extended with the wing-tops. Other additions included a sliding back seat as well as the way of keyless ignition about high specification models. The range of motors included improved 1.2 plus 1.4 petrol models, along with a Renault-sourced 1.5 diesel device. The automatic CVT transmission of the past model was changed with a traditional automatic transmission.

Nissan Micra Rafeet
The K12 was perfectly received by the engine industry plus set a modern standard for the superminis which followed it.
Nissan March
The car was unveiled inside Nissan Headquarters Gallery, plus inside Nissan's Ginza Gallery inside a show featuring the broad range of color variations.
March Enchante involves a swivel front passenger's seat which turns 90° inside a easy procedure with permit convenient ingress plus egress by senior residents plus wheelchair consumers plus by people wearing conventional Japanese clothing. The March Driving Helper is fitted with hand-operated driving controls which are basically intended with allow people with leg disabilities with drive plus include a control lever for running the accelerator as well as the brakes with all the left hand. These hand-operated controls are included inside the Autech Driving Control package, developed initially by Autech Japan for Nissan cars plus featuring an great shape, running ease plus security.
March Enchante was unveiled inside 2004 Tokyo Motor Show.
The cars went about sale about 2003-03-05. Early models include 14e, 12c, 10b. Early March Enchante models include 12c. Early March Driving Helper models include 12c.

June 15, 2005, the K12 chassis spawned the coupé convertible model called the Nissan Micra C+C. It was crafted at the new London-based Nissan Design Europe studio, developed at the Nissan Technical Centre Europe at Cranfield, Bedfordshire plus built, because with its predecessor, at the Sunderland plant. It is made because a contemporary interpretation of the 1991 Micra based Nissan Figaro with a convertible hardtop rather of the canvass top the Figaro had. The electrical folding glass rooftop is produced by Karmann coachworks plus has a 2+2 seating design. The vehicle is driven by an 1.4 or 1.6 L gasoline engine, or perhaps a 1.5 L diesel accessible about European versions just. It was initially accessible just inside Europe yet sales inside Japan started Micra 2007 following the introduction at the Tokyo Car Show. There were initially 4 trim levels: Urbis, Sport, Essenza plus Active Luxury.

In late 2007, the Nissan Micra was facelifted again. It had many aesthetic tweaks: each model showcased the standard racing grille taken within the K12 160 SR; the front headlights were tidied up as well as the grilles housing the indicators were edged inside chrome. Additionally, the B-pillar trims were no longer colour-coded. Inside, there were modern seat cloth designs, as well as the dashboard showcased components taken from different Nissans. New equipment included an audible speed alert, bluetooth connectivity with all the car plus reversing sensors. All models were fitted with sport bumpers plus spoilers found on the sides plus back.

The Nissan Micra K13 was unveiled at the 80th International Geneva Motor Show.
It is available inside over 160 nations, including Thailand inside March 2010, India inside July 2010, plus Europe inside November 2010. This was the initial of the March/Micra with be integrated a North American plant, despite that this generation will likely not have any sales inside the United States & Canada.

It is based found on the brand-new Type-V platform with a new 1.2-litre HR12DE 59 kW 108 N·m, 3-cylinder engine. In the finish of 2011 Nissan introduce the supercharged adaptation of 1.2 called inside Europe because Micra 1.2 DIG-S as well as the different engine 1.5 plus 1.6 for South American, Asian plus Australian nation. The vehicle is expected with be gas effective, delivering 18 km with a litre of petrol. The hot Idling Stop System is reported with boost gas economy by 2.0 km/L. It qualities varying control of voltage for energy generation with alternator. Micra's coefficient of drag is merely 0.32 attained inside element by the sleek roofline, with a raised back end, that optimally changes airflow with the back sides plus different ingredients of the body tailored with lower air resistance including door mirrors, a big front spoiler as well as the underbody configuration. A lightweight rooftop panel helps you to keep fat with 915 kg. The auto was crafted with appeal with a unisex crowd, yet look stylish plus elegant with face the tough competition.
In India the Micra was available with a diesel unit: the classic 1.5 dCI K9K yielded by Renault with 65 hp.

Micra's new-generation Xtronic CVT attributes a brand-new structure combining a belt-operated CVT with an auxiliary two-speed transmission. The CVT raises the transmission ratio by over 20% compared with alternative CVTs inside its class, providing increased responsiveness about beginning plus acceleration plus improved quietness throughout high-speed driving. With the auxiliary transmission, the scale plus fat of the CVT device is greatly reduced. Friction is reduced by regarding 30% compared with alternative CVTs inside its class, accomplished by the improved transmission ratio, reduced pulley size plus fat, plus reduced oil agitating resistance — assisting better gas economy. An electrical oil pump is adopted inside cars loaded with Idling Stop. Quicker oil stress reaction improves startup performance and therefore adds with an improvement inside gas economy. While Idling Stop is within procedure, pulley rotation is temporarily secured inside the CVT plus is gradually unlocked whenever the engine begins again. This prevents reverse movement throughout a hill begin plus allows smooth business.

Heat motors generate mechanical energy by extracting power from heat flows, much because a water wheel extracts mechanical energy from a flow of mass dropping from the distance. Engines are inefficient, thus more heat vitality enters the engine than comes out because mechanical power; the difference is waste heat that need to be removed. Internal combustion machines eliminate waste heat by cool consumption air, hot exhaust gases, plus explicit engine cooling.
Engines with high efficiency have more vitality leave because mechanical motion plus less because waste heat. Many waste heat is essential: it guides heat by the engine, much because a water wheel functions just when there is certain leave velocity inside the waste water with carry it away plus create area for more water. So, all heat motors want cooling to work.
Cooling is additionally required considering significant temperatures damage engine contents plus lubricants. Internal-combustion machines burn gas warmer than the melting temperature of engine components, plus hot enough with set fire with lubricants. Engine cooling removes stamina swiftly enough with keep temperatures low thus the engine could survive.
Many high-efficiency machines run without explicit cooling plus with just accidental heat reduction, a shape called adiabatic. For instance, 10,000 mile-per-gallon "cars" for the Shell economy challenge are insulated, both with transfer because much vitality because potential from hot gases with mechanical motion, plus with lessen reheat losses whenever restarting. Such machines could achieve significant efficiency yet compromise energy output, duty cycle, engine fat, durability, plus emissions.

Many internal combustion motors are fluid cooled utilizing either air or perhaps a fluid coolant run from the heat exchanger cooled by air. Marine motors plus certain stationary motors have willing access with a big amount of water at a appropriate temperature. The water can be utilized straight with cool the engine, nevertheless frequently has sediment, that will block coolant passages, or chemicals, including salt, which will chemically damage the engine. Thus, engine coolant can be run by the heat exchanger which is cooled by the body of water.
Many liquid-cooled motors employ a mixture of water plus chemicals including antifreeze plus rust inhibitors. The industry expression for the antifreeze mixture is engine coolant. Many antifreezes utilize no water at all, rather utilizing a fluid with different attributes, like propylene glycol or perhaps a mixture of propylene glycol plus ethylene glycol. Most "air-cooled" motors employ several fluid oil cooling, with keep acceptable temperatures for both important engine components as well as the oil itself. Many "liquid-cooled" motors utilize certain air cooling, with all the consumption stroke of air cooling the combustion room. An exception is Wankel motors, where certain components of the combustion room are not cooled by intake, requiring additional effort for lucrative surgery.
There are numerous demands about a cooling program. One key requirement is the fact that an engine fails when merely 1 element overheats. So, it happens to be important which the cooling program keep all components at properly low temperatures. Liquid-cooled machines can differ the scale of their passageways by the engine block thus which coolant flow can be designed with the demands of every region. Locations with either excellent peak temperatures or significant heat flow could need good cooling. This reduces the occurrence of hot spots, that are harder with avoid with air cooling. Air-cooled machines will additionally differ their cooling ability by utilizing more carefully spaced cooling fins because region, however this could create their manufacture difficult plus pricey.
Just the fixed components of the engine, including the block plus head, are cooled straight by the principal coolant program. Moving components like the pistons, plus with a lower extent the crank plus rods, should depend found on the lubrication oil because a coolant, or with a quite limited amount of conduction into the block plus thence the key coolant. High performance machines frequently have more oil, beyond the amount required for lubrication, sprayed up onto the bottom of the piston only for additional cooling. Air-cooled motorcycles usually depend seriously about oil-cooling inside addition with air-cooling of the cylinder barrels.
Liquid-cooled machines often have a circulation pump. The initial motors relied about thermo-syphon cooling alone, where hot coolant left the best of the engine block plus passed with the radiator, where it was cooled before returning with the bottom of the engine. Circulation was driven by convection alone.
Other demands include expense, fat, dependability, plus toughness of the cooling program itself.
Conductive heat transfer is proportional with the temperature difference between components. If engine metal is at 250 °C as well as the air is at 20°C, then there is a 230°C temperature difference for cooling. An air-cooled engine utilizes all this difference. On the other hand, a liquid-cooled engine would dump heat within the engine with a fluid, heating the fluid with 135°C that is then cooled with 20°C air. In each step, the liquid-cooled engine has half the temperature difference so at initially appears with require twice the cooling location.
But, attributes of the coolant additionally affect cooling. As illustration, comparing water plus oil because coolants, 1 gram of oil may absorb regarding 55% of the heat for the same rise inside temperature. Oil has about 90% the density of water, thus a provided amount of oil will absorb just about 50% of the vitality of the same amount of water. The thermal conductivity of water is regarding 4 instances which of oil, that may help heat transfer. The viscosity of oil is ten occasions better than water, improving the power necessary with pump oil for cooling, plus reducing the internet energy output of the engine.
Comparing air plus water, air has greatly lower heat capability per gram plus per amount plus lower than a tenth the conductivity, and much lower viscosity. Continuing the calculation from 2 paragraphs above, air cooling requirements 10 instances of the surface location, consequently the fins, plus air requirements 2000 instances the flow velocity and therefore a recirculating air enthusiast demands 10 occasions the force of the recirculating water pump. Moving heat within the cylinder with a big surface region for air cooling will present issues including problems production the shapes required for superior heat transfer as well as the area required for free flow of the big amount of air. Water boils at regarding the same temperature desired for engine cooling. This has the benefit it absorbs a lot of stamina with really small rise inside temperature, that is wise for keeping factors cool, specifically for passing 1 stream of coolant over many hot objects plus achieving uniform temperature. On the other hand, passing air over many hot objects inside series warms the air at every step, thus the initially can be over-cooled as well as the last under-cooled. But, when water boils, it is actually an insulator, leading with a abrupt reduction of cooling where steam bubbles shape. Unfortunately, steam might return with water because it mixes with additional coolant, thus an engine temperature gauge may indicate an acceptable temperature despite the reality surrounding temperatures are excellent enough which damage has been completed.
An engine demands different temperatures. The inlet including the compressor of the turbo plus inside the inlet trumpets as well as the inlet valves have to be because cold because potential. A countercurrent heat exchange with forced cooling air does the job. The cylinder-walls ought not to heat up the air before compression, and not cool down the fuel at the combustion. A compromise is a wall temperature of 90°C. The viscosity of the oil is optimized for really this temperature. Any cooling of the exhaust as well as the turbine of the turbocharger reduces the amount of energy accessible with the turbine, thus the exhaust program is usually insulated between engine plus turbocharger with keep the exhaust gases because hot because potential.
The temperature of the cooling air could vary from perfectly under freezing with 50°C. Further, whilst machines inside long-haul boat or rail service could work at a steady weight, road cars usually see commonly differing plus rapidly differing weight. So, the cooling program is made with fluctuate cooling thus the engine is neither too hot neither too cold. Cooling program regulation involves adjustable baffles inside the air flow; a enthusiast that operates either independently of the engine, including an electrical enthusiast, or that has an adjustable clutch; a thermostatic valve or simply 'thermostat' which could block the coolant flow whenever too cool. Additionally, the engine, coolant, plus heat exchanger have certain heat capability that smooths out temperature heighten inside brief sprints. Many engine controls closed down an engine or limit it with half throttle when it overheats. Modern electronic engine controls change cooling based about throttle with expect the temperature rise, plus limit engine force output with pay for finite cooling.
Finally, additional concerns might dominate cooling program shape. As illustration, air is a fairly bad coolant, however air cooling systems are easy, plus failure rates usually rise because the square of the quantity of failure points. Additionally, cooling capability is reduced just somewhat by tiny air coolant leaks. Where security is of greatest value, because inside aircraft, it can be a advantageous trade-off with provide up efficiency, durability, plus quietness inside purchase with achieve somewhat high dependability — the consequences of the broken airplane engine are thus serious, even a slight heighten inside dependability is value offering up different advantageous qualities with achieve it.
Air-cooled plus liquid-cooled motors are both employed commonly. Every principle has blessings plus disadvantages, plus certain applications will prefer 1 over the alternative. For instance, many vehicles plus pickups employ liquid-cooled motors, when numerous tiny airplane plus low-cost machines are air-cooled.