Download Toyota engine workshop repair manuals
Toyota Motor Corporation is a Japanese multinational automaker headquartered inside Toyota, Aichi, Japan.The business was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda inside 1937 because a spinoff from his father's business Toyota Industries with create vehicles.A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine
Toyota 22R and 22R-E engine factory workshop and repair manual download
Toyota 22R and 22R-E engine factory workshop and repair manual downloadon PDF can be viewed using PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro . File size 18 Mb Searchable PDF document with bookmarks. Covers Maintenance Engine Mechanical EFI Fuel System Cooling System Lubrication Syste Ignition System Starting SystemCharging SystemAbout the 22R engine The Toyota R family was a variety of straight-4 gasoline engines. Created for longitudinal use in such cars as the Celica and Hilux and in manufacturing from 1953 through 1995 use faded out as numerous of Toyota s mainstream models relocated to front-wheel drive. OHC versions featured a chain-driven camshaft mitigating the danger of internal damage from interference as in belt-driven engines.The 2-valve SOHC 2.4 L (2 366 cc) 22R was produced from 1981 through 1995.Many parts from the newer 22R-E are not compatible with those from the older pre-1985 engine. Non-compatible areas include the cylinder head block pistons and numerous of the connected parts such once the timing chain and cover and water and oil pumps (although the oil pump internals are the same). Thes
Toyota H41 H42 H50 H55F Gearbox transmission factory workshop and repair manual
Toyota H41 H42 H50 H55F TRANSMISSIONS Gearbox factory workshop and repair manual downloadon PDF can be viewed using free PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro . It is compressed as a zip file which you can extract with 7zip File size 179 Mb Searchable PDF document with bookmarks. TRANSMISSION; H41 H42 H50 H55FFOR MODELSLandcruiserBJ 40 42 43 45 46 60 series FJ 40 43 45 60 series HJ 47 60 series BU 20 23 25 32 32 36 40 series HU 40 50 series WU 40 50 series Toyota H41 H42 H50 H55FTRANSMISSIONS Gearbox factory workshop and repair online download
Toyota Hiace Van 1989-2004 factory workshop and repair manual download
Toyota Hiace van 1989-2004 factory workshop and repair manual on PDF can be viewed using free PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro . It is compressed as a zip file which you can extract with 7zip File size is large at 161 Mb with some PDF documents with bookmarks. Introduction Cluch Manual Transmission Automatic Transmission Transfer 2wd 4 wd Propeller Shaft Suspension Axle Brake System Steering Body Body Electrical System Air Conditioning Service Specifications Standard Bolt Torque Specifications Sst Ssm Praparation Diagnostics Supplemental Restraint SystemBody ElectricalENGINES COVERED 2.0L 1RZ PETROL 2.0L 1RZ-E PETROL 2.4L 2RZ PETROL 2.4L 2RZ-E PETROL #12288; #12288; #12288; 2.4L 2L
Toyota 3B B 11B 13B engine factory workshop and repair manual
Toyota 3B B 11B 13B engine factory workshop and repair manualon PDF can be viewed using PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro File size 41 Mb in 338 pages Covers the Diesel 3B B 11B 13B diesel engines.includes engine mechanical fuel system cooling system lubrication starting and charging.The B is a 3.0 L inline-four eight-valve OHV diesel engine. Compression ratio is 21:1. Output is 80 hp (60 kW) at 3 600 rpm with 141 lb ft (191 N m) of torque at 2 200 rpm although later versions claim 85 PS (63 kW).Land Cruiser 40 Dyna 3rd 4th 5th generation Toyoace 5th generation Daihatsu Delta V9/V12-series 1978-1995 Hino Ranger 2 (V10)The 3B is a 3.4 L inline 4 eight valve OHV diesel engine. Compression ratio is 20:1. Output is 90 hp (67 kW) at 3500 rpm with 160 ft lbf (217 N m) of torque at 2000 rpm.Dyna
Toyota A442F Automatic Transmission factory workshop and repair manual
Toyota A442F Automatic Transmission factory workshop and repair manual on PDF can be viewed using PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro . File size 21 Mb Searchable PDF document with bookmarks. Covers Operation Component Parts Removal Oil Pump Overdrive Unit Front Clutch Rear Clutch Second Brake Front and Rear Planetary Gear Unit First and Reverse Brake Valve Body Upper Valve Body Lower Valve Body Transmission Case Parking Lock Pawl Component Parts Installation Service SpecificationsA442F Automatic Transmission repair and workshop manual Covers FZJ80 and HDJ80 Toyota Landcruiser Hardtop canvas top station wagon Covers the 4 speed electronic controlled The new A442F automatic transmission is a 4 -speed Electronic Controlled Automatic Trans- mission and has following features;Electronic control provides the Automatic Transmission shift and lockup points most appropriate for the power chara
Toyota 5L-E engine factory workshop and repair manual
Toyota 5L-E engine factory workshop and repair manual on PDF can be viewed using PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro . It is compressed as a zip file which you can extract with 7zip File size 12 MbCovers 5L BELT INSTALL 5L COMPONANTS 5L CRANK ANGLE SENSOR 5L DRIVE BELT COMPONANTS 5L ECD SYSTEM DIAGRAM 5L ENGINE COMPONANTS 5L ENGINE REMOVAL 5L ENGINE UNIT COMPONANTS 5L FRONT OIL SEAL INSTALL 5L FRONT OIL SEAL REMOVAL 5L FRONT SEAL COMPONANTS 5L HEAD COMPONANTS 5L HEAD INSTALL 5L HEAD REMOVAL 5L INJECTIOR NOZZLE COMPONANTS 5L INJECTOR PUMP COMPONANTS 5L REAR OIL SEAL COMPONANTS 5L SERVICE SPECS 5L TORQUE SPECS 5L VENTURI COMPONANTS 5L-E ENGINE SUP. RM817E CAM INSTALL CAM REMOVAL ECD SYSTEM ENGINE TIMING BELT COMPONANTS ENGINE UNIT DIASSEMBLY ENGINE UNIT REASSEMBLY PRESSURE SENSOR RAR OIL SEAL INSTALL REAR OIL SEAL REMOVAL TIMING BELT INSTALL TIMING BELT REMOVAL VALVE CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENTSearchable document with bookmarks. About the 5L-E engine The 5L-E is a 3.0 L (2 986 cc) EFI version of the 5L engine. It is the latest member of the L family. It has a bore of 99.5 mm and stroke of 96.0 mm with a compression ratio of 22.2:1. Outpu
Toyota 1KZ-TE engine factory workshop and repair manual download
Toyota Hilux 1KZ-TE engine factory workshop and repair manual on PDF can be viewed using free PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro . It is compressed as a zip file which you can extract with 7zip File size 35 Mb Searchable PDF document with bookmarks. TOYOTA 1KZ-TE Diesel Engine Repair Manual This manual is the complete repair manual for the 1KZ-TE engine. 456 Pages of detailed Information with Images Diagrams in PDF format This is an engine mechanical supplement manual covering the 1KZ-T and 1KZ-TE turbo-diesel engines Covers 4 Runner and some imported Surf models also the KZN165 series Toyota Prado Hilux The manual covers only the engine including general maintenance and repairs problem diagnosis and rebuilding. (NOTE: It does not cover any of the ancillary systems such as fuel system transmission etc.)Chapters Index: bull; General De
Toyota 3C-TE engine factory workshop and repair manual download
Toyota 3C-TE engine factory workshop and repair manual on PDF can be viewed using free PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro . File size 13 Mb PDF document Chapters Index: bull; Introductio bull; Preparation bull; Service specifications bull; Diagnostics bull; Engine Mechanical bull; Turbocharger bull; Emission Control bull; Electronic Control Diesel bull; Engine Fuel bull; Cooling bull; Lubrication bull; Starting bull; Charging bull; Index About the 3C-TE engine 3C-TETurbocharged version with EFI.126 hp (94 kW) at 4700 rpmApplications: CT216 Caldina 1998-2002 (Japan only) CT211/216 Carina 1998-2001 (Japan only) CT211/216 Corona 1997-2001 (Japan only) CXR10/11/20/21 Estima 1993-1999 (Japan only) CXM10 Gaia 1998-2004 (Japan only) CXM10 Ipsum 1997-2001 (Japan only) CXM10 Picnic 1997-2001 (Europe only)Toyota3C-TE engine factory workshop and repair manual Download
Toyota 4Runner 1996-2002 factory workshop and repair manual download
Toyota 4Runner 1996-2002 factory workshop and repair manual downloadon PDF can be viewed using free PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro . File size 17Mb Searchable PDF document with bookmarks. Engine 5VZ-FEBrakes Electrical Steering Suspension Transmission Axles Heating Diagnostics Air-Conditioning Transfer System Transmission Propeller Shaft Engine Wiring Diagrams Body Service Specs Air-Conditioning Body Mechanical Cooling Diagnostics Emission Control Lubrication Axles Toyota 4Runner 1996-2002 factory workshop and repair online download
Toyota 1RZ 1RZ-E 2RZ 2RZ-E engine factory workshop and repair manual
Toyota 1RZ 1RZ-E 2RZ 2RZ-E engine factory workshop and repair manual downloadon PDF can be viewed using free PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro . It is compressed as a zip file which you can extract with 7zip File size 21 Mb Searchable PDF document with bookmarks. Introduction Engine Mechanical EFI system Fuel System Cooling System Lubrication System Ignition System Starting System Charging System Service Specifications Torgue settings SST and SSM Engine Diagonostics Emission Control Electronic Fuel InjectionCooling The 1RZ is a 2.0 L (1 998 cc) version built from 1989. Bore is 86 mm and stroke is 86 mm. The 1RZ-E is the fuel-injected version of the 1RZ. With a 9.0 to 1 compression ratio output is 101-108 hp at 5 400 rpm with 118-123 lb ft (161-167 N m) of torque at 2 800 rpm. The 2RZ is a 2.4 L (2 438 cc) version. Bore is 95 mm and stroke is 86 mm; a variety of combination of heads and fuel delivery systems were available. 2RZ-E This is an SOHC engine with two valves per cylinder. Valve adjustment i
Toyota 4Y engine factory workshop and repair manual download
Toyota 4Y engine factory workshop and repair manual on PDF can be viewed using free PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro . File size 17 Mb PDF document Chapters Index:GENERAL ENGINE TUNE-UP ENGINE OVERHAUL FUEL SYSTEM PCV SYSTEM COOLING SYSTEM LUBRICATION SYSTEM STARTING SYSTEM CHARGING SYSTEM SST LIST SERVICE STANDARDSAbout the 4Y engine OHV eight-valveCapacity: 2237 cc1987.09 - 1995.12 Toyota Crown (YS132 overseas specifications)Toyota Van (Town Ace overseas specification Tarago in Australia)Hiace third generation (overseas specification)1979-1988 Toyota Stout (YK110)Daihatsu Delta1993-1995 Daihatsu Rocky F95Toyota Industries forkliftsToyota 4Runner (Australia)Volkswagen Taro1985-1993 Toyota Hilux (South Africa)Toyota 4Y engine factory workshop and repair manual Download
Toyota 2L-3L-5L engine factory workshop and repair manual
Toyota 2L 3L 5L engine factory workshop and repair manual downloadon PDF can be viewed using free PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro . It is compressed as a zip file which you can extract with 7zip File size 21 Mb Searchable PDF document with bookmarks. IntroductionEngineStartingChargingPreparationService SpecificationsDiagnosticsEngine MechanicalEmission ControlEngine FuelCoolingLubricationElectronic ControlThe 2L is a 2.4 L (2 446 cc) 4-cylinder diesel engine. Bore is 92 mm and stroke is 92 mm with a compression ratios of around 22.3:1 and redline of 4800 rpm. Outputs range from 76 to 87 hp (57 to 65 kW) and torque of 15.8-16.8 kg m (155-165 N m).The 3L is a 2.8 L (2779 cc) four-cylinder diesel engine. Bore is 96 mm and stroke is 96 mm with a compression ratio of 22.2 : 1. Output is 91 hp (68 kW) gross at
Toyota Hilux 2005-2013 factory workshop and repair manual download
Toyota Hilux AN10 AN20 2005-2013 factory workshop and repair manual on PDF can be viewed using free PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro . It is compressed as a zip file which you can extract with 7zip File size is large at 170 Mb with some PDF documents with bookmarks. Covers the AN10 AN20 Toyota Hilux Petrol/Gasoline engines: 2.0 L 1TR-FE 2.7 L 2TR-FE 4.0 L 1GR-FE V6 Diesel: 2.5 L 2KD-FTV turbodiesel 2.5 L 2KD-FTV intercooled turbodiesel 3.0 L 1KD-FTV intercooled VNT diesel TGN 15-16-26 MODELS GGN 15-25 MODELS KUN 25-36-35-36 MODELS Toyota Hilux AN10 AN20 TGN GGN KUN factory workshop and repair manual Download
Toyota 1HZ 1PZ 1HD-T engine factory workshop and repair manual
Toyota 1HZ 1PZ 1HD-T engine factory workshop and repair manual downloadon PDF can be viewed using PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro File size 36 Mb in 349 pages searchable covering general service repairs for the 1 PZ 1 HZ and 1HD-Tengines equipped on the TOYOTA LAND CRUISER and COASTER.PZJ70 73 75 series HZJ70 73 75 80 series HDJ80 series HZB30 series HDB30 seriesContents General Engine Tune Up Engine Overhaul Fuel System Cooling System Lubrication System Starting Charging AppendixToyota 1HZ 1PZ 1HD-T engine factory workshop and repair online download
Toyota Chassis and Body workshop and repair manual
Toyota Land Cruiser - Chassis and Body factory workshop and repair manual 1980 publication. Covers FJ40 FJ43 FJ45 FJ60 BJ40 BJ 42 BJ43 BJ45 BJ46 BJ60 series and HJ47 and HJ60 serieson PDF can be viewed using PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro File size 120 Mb Bookmarketed with 851 pages Does not cover the engine. Covers Clutch transmission (4 speed H41 and H42 and 3 speed J30) transfer case propeller shaft front and rear axles steering brakes winch frame body and electrical. About the Toyota Landcruiser The Toyota Land Cruiser is a series of four-wheel drive vehicles fashioned by the Japanese car maker Toyota Motor Corporation. Programming of the first generation secure Cruiser began in 1951 as Toyota s type of a Jeep-like vehicle and production started in 1954. The secure Cruiser happens to be released in convertible hardtop station wagon and utility truck versions and it is currently Toyota s flagship 4WD vehicle. The Land Cruiser s excellence and longevity has led to huge popularity exclusively in Australia where it is the best-selling full-size body-on-frame four-wheel drive vehicle.Toyota also extensively tests the Land Cruis
Toyota 2H 12H-T engine factory workshop and repair manual
Toyota 2H 12H-T engine factory workshop and repair manualon PDF can be viewed using PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro File size 12 MbCovers the Diesel 2H and the 12H-T turbo diesel engines.includes engine mechanical fuel system cooling system lubrication starting and charging.About the Toyota 2H Engine The 2H is a 4.0 L (3980 cc) inline 6 12 valve OHV diesel engine. Bore is 91 mm and stroke is 102 mm with a compression ratio of 20.7:1. Output is 103 hp (77 kW) at 3500 rpm - later production years 107 hp (80 kW) with 177 lb ft (240 N m) of torque at 2000 rpm.Applications Toyota Land Cruiser HJ47 HJ60 HJ75 Toyota Dyna HU20 30 40 50 Toyota Coaster HB20 30About the 12H-T engine The 12H-T is a 4.0 L (3980 cc) inline 6 12 valve OHV turbocharged diesel engine. Bore i
Toyota H140F H150F H151F Gearbox factory workshop and repair manual
Toyota H140F H150F and H151F TRANSMISSIONS Gearbox factory workshop and repair manualon PDF searchable and indexed can be viewed using PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro File size 9 Mb in 100 pages MANUAL TRANSMISSION (H14OF H150F AND H151F TRANSMISSIONS) Page DESCRIPTION MT-2 PRECAUTIONS MT-4 TROUBLESHOOTING MT-4 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF TRANSMISSION MT-5 COMPONENTS MT-12 DISASSEMBLY OF TRANSMISSION MT-15 COMPONENT PARTS MT-25 Input Shaft Assembly MT-25 Output Shaft Assembly MT-27 Counter Gear Assembly MT-39 Front Bearing Retainer MT-42 Oil Pump Cover Assembly MT-43ASSEMBLY OF TRANSMISSION MT-47Toyota H14OF H150F and H151F TRANSMISSIONS Gearbox factory workshop and repair online
Toyota 1HD-FT engine factory workshop and repair manual
Toyota 1HD-FT engine factory workshop and repair manualon PDF can be viewed using PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro File size 37 Mb in 259 pages INTRODUCTION PREPARATION SERVICE SPECIFICATION DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM ENGINE MECHANICAL INTAKE AIR/SHUTTER SYSTEM TURBOCHARGING SYSTEM EMISSION CONTROL ELECTRONIC CONTROL DIESEL FUEL INTAKE TEMPERATURE FUEL SYSTEM INJECTION SYSTEM COOLING SYSTEM LUBRICATION SYSTEM STARTING SYSTEM ALTERNATOR SYSTEM CHARGING SYSTEM TORQUE SPECIFICATIONSST AND SSM SYSTEMThe 1HD-FT is a 4.2 L (4164 cc) straight-6 24 valve SOHC turbocharged diesel engine of direct injection design. Bore is 94 mm and stroke is 100 mm with a compression ratio of 18.6:1. Known as the quot;multivalve quot; it has 4 valves per cylinder (2 inlet 2 exhaust) central vertically mounted injector and no glow plugs but rather an intake glow screen heater (like the later electronic 1HD-FTE below). The 4 valves p
Toyota 1FZ-FE 1FZ-F engine factory workshop and repair manual
Toyota 1FZ-FE and 1FZ-F engine factory workshop and repair manual downloadon PDF can be viewed using PDF reader like adobe or foxit or nitro File size 15 Mb in 498 pages searchable INTRODUCTION PREPARATION SERVICE SPECIFICATION DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM ENGINE MECHANICAL INTAKE AIR/SHUTTER SYSTEM TURBOCHARGING SYSTEM EMISSION CONTROL ELECTRONIC CONTROL DIESEL FUEL INTAKE TEMPERATURE FUEL SYSTEM INJECTION SYSTEM COOLING SYSTEM LUBRICATION SYSTEM STARTING SYSTEM ALTERNATOR SYSTEM CHARGING SYSTEM TORQUE SPECIFICATIONSST AND SSM SYSTEMThe engine displaced 4477 cc with a bore and stroke measuring 100 millimetres (3.9 in) x 95 millimetres (3.7 in) respectively and a 9.0:1 compression ratio; the head used Toyota s narrow-angle overhead camshafts for better fuel economy. The 1FZ had only two variants available: the 1FZ-F and the 1FZ-FE. The only significant difference between the two was the inclusion of electronic fuel injection on the 1FZ-FE whereas the 1FZ-F used a carb
The business was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda inside 1937 because a spinoff from his father's business Toyota Industries with create vehicles. Three years earlier, inside 1934, whilst nonetheless a department of Toyota Industries, it built its initial product, the Type A engine, plus, inside 1936, its initial passenger auto, the Toyota AA. Toyota Motor Corporation group firms are Toyota, Lexus, Daihatsu, plus Hino Motors, together with many "nonautomotive" businesses. TMC is element of the Toyota Group, among the biggest conglomerates inside the planet.
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which utilizes the heat of compression with initiate ignition with burn the gas which has been injected into the combustion room. This really is in comparison with spark-ignition motors like a petrol engine or fuel engine, that utilizes a spark connect with ignite an air-fuel mixture. The engine was developed by German inventor Rudolf Diesel inside 1893.
The diesel engine has the greatest thermal efficiency of any usual internal or outside combustion engine due with its high compression ratio. Low-speed diesel machines will have a thermal efficiency which surpasses 50%.
Diesel machines are produced inside two-stroke plus four-stroke versions. They were initially chosen because a better substitution for stationary steam machines. Since the 1910s they have been chosen inside submarines plus ships. Utilize inside locomotives, pickups, thick equipment plus electrical generating vegetation followed later. In the 1930s, they gradually started with be chosen inside a limited cars. Because the 1970s, the utilization of diesel machines inside heavier on-road plus off-road cars inside the USA improved. As of 2007, regarding 50% of all brand-new auto sales inside Europe are diesel.
The world's biggest diesel engine is currently a Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C Common Rail sea diesel of regarding 84,420 kW @ 102 rpm output.
According with the British Society of Motor Manufacturing plus Traders, the EU average for diesel vehicles account for 50% of the total available, including inside France - 70%, plus inside the UK - 38%.
The diesel internal combustion engine differs within the gasoline driven Otto cycle by utilizing very compressed hot air with ignite the gas instead of utilizing a spark connect.
In the true diesel engine, just air is initially introduced into the combustion room. The air is then compressed with a compression ratio usually between 15:1 plus 22:1 causing 40-bar stress compared with 8 with 14 bars inside the petrol engine. This significant compression heats the air with 550 °C. At regarding the best of the compression stroke, gas is injected straight into the compressed air inside the combustion room. This can be into a void inside the best of the piston or perhaps a pre-chamber depending on the shape of the engine. The gas injector ensures which the gas is broken down into little droplets, plus which the gas is distributed evenly. The heat of the compressed air vaporizes gas within the surface of the droplets. The vapour is then ignited by the heat within the compressed air inside the combustion room, the droplets continue with vaporise off their surfaces plus burn, getting small, till all of the gas inside the droplets has been burnt. The start of vaporisation causes a delay period throughout ignition as well as the characteristic diesel knocking sound because the vapour reaches ignition temperature plus causes an abrupt heighten inside stress above the piston. The fast expansion of combustion gases then forces the piston downward, providing force with the crankshaft.
Also because the significant amount of compression permitting combustion with happen without a separate ignition program, a excellent compression ratio greatly increases the engine's efficiency. Increasing the compression ratio inside a spark-ignition engine where gas plus air are mixed before entry with the cylinder is limited by the requirement with avoid damaging pre-ignition. Because just air is compressed inside a diesel engine, plus gas is not introduced into the cylinder till soon before top dead centre, premature detonation is not an problem plus compression ratios are much high.
Diesel's authentic engine injected gas with all the assistance of compressed air, that atomized the gas plus forced it into the engine by the nozzle. The nozzle starting was shut with a pin valve lifted by the camshaft with initiate the gas injection before top dead centre. This really is called an air-blast injection. Driving the 3 stage compressor chosen several energy nevertheless the efficiency plus web force output was over any additional combustion engine at which time.
Diesel motors inside service now raise the gas with extreme pressures by mechanical pumps plus deliver it with the combustion room by pressure-activated injectors without compressed air. With direct injected diesels, injectors spray gas from four with 12 tiny orifices inside its nozzle. The early air injection diesels constantly had a superior combustion without the sharp heighten inside stress throughout combustion. Research is today being conducted plus patents are being taken out with again utilize several shape of air injection with decrease the nitrogen oxides plus pollution, reverting with Diesel's authentic implementation with its superior combustion plus perhaps quieter procedure. In all main aspects, the contemporary diesel engine holds true with Rudolf Diesel's authentic shape, which of igniting gas by compression at a very excellent stress in the cylinder. With much high pressures plus excellent technologies injectors, present-day diesel machines employ the so-called strong injection program used by Herbert Akroyd Stuart for his hot bulb engine. The indirect injection engine might be considered the newest development of these low speed hot bulb ignition machines.
A important component of all diesel machines is a mechanical or electronic governor that controls the idling speed plus maximum speed of the engine by controlling the rate of gas delivery. Unlike Otto-cycle motors, incoming air is not throttled along with a diesel engine without a governor cannot have a stable idling speed plus can overspeed, causing its destruction. Mechanically governed gas injection systems are driven by the engine's gear train. These systems utilize a mixture of springs plus weights with control gas delivery relative with both weight plus speed. Modern electronically controlled diesel machines control gas delivery by utilize of a electronic control component or electronic control device. The ECM/ECU receives an engine speed signal, and alternative running parameters like consumption manifold stress plus gas temperature, from a sensor plus controls the amount of gas and begin of injection timing by actuators with maximize force plus efficiency plus minimise emissions. Controlling the timing of the begin of injection of gas into the cylinder is a key with reducing emissions, plus maximizing gas economy, of the engine. The timing is calculated inside levels of crank angle of the piston before top dead centre. For instance, when the ECM/ECU initiates gas injection whenever the piston is 10 levels before TDC, the begin of injection, or timing, is mentioned with be 10° BTDC. Optimal timing depends the engine shape and its speed plus weight.
Advancing the begin of injection results inside high in-cylinder stress plus temperature, plus high efficiency, and results inside elevated engine sound plus improved oxides of nitrogen emissions due with high combustion temperatures. Delaying begin of injection causes incomplete combustion, reduced gas efficiency plus an heighten inside exhaust smoke, containing a considerable amount of particulate matter plus unburned hydrocarbons.
Many designs of gas injection have been utilized over the previous century.
Many modern diesel machines utilize a mechanical single plunger high-pressure gas pump driven by the engine crankshaft. For every engine cylinder, the related plunger inside the gas pump measures out the correct amount of gas plus determines the timing of every injection. These motors utilize injectors which are extremely precise spring-loaded valves which open plus close at a certain gas stress. Separate high-pressure gas lines connect the gas pump with every cylinder. Fuel amount for every single combustion is controlled with a slanted groove inside the plunger that rotates just a some levels releasing the stress plus is controlled with a mechanical governor, consisting of weights rotating at engine speed constrained by springs along with a lever. The injectors are held open by the gas stress. On high-speed machines the plunger pumps are together inside 1 device. The size of gas lines within the pump with every injector is usually the same for every cylinder inside purchase to get the same stress delay.
A cheaper configuration about high-speed motors with fewer than six cylinders is with employ an axial-piston distributor pump, consisting of 1 rotating pump plunger delivering gas with a valve plus line for every cylinder.
Many contemporary systems have a single gas pump that supplies gas frequently at significant stress with a prevalent rail with every injector. Every injector has a solenoid operated by an electronic control device, causing more exact control of injector starting occasions which rely about different control conditions, including engine speed plus loading, plus providing greater engine performance plus gas economy.
Both mechanical plus electronic injection systems is utilized inside either direct or indirect injection designs.
Two-stroke diesel motors with mechanical injection pumps is inadvertently run inside reverse, albeit inside a truly inefficient way, potentially damaging the engine. Whenever this happens, huge amounts of soot are ejected within the air consumption. This was usually a result of drive beginning a car utilizing the incorrect gear. Large ship two-stroke diesels are created with run inside either way, obviating the requirement for a gearbox.
In a normal rail program, the gas within the gas tank is provided with the usual header. This gas is then transferred by tubing with the injectors, that inject it into the combustion room. The header has a excellent stress relief valve with keep the stress inside the header plus return the extra gas with the gas tank. The gas is sprayed with a nozzle which is opened plus shut with a needle valve, operated with a solenoid. When the solenoid is not triggered, the spring forces the needle valve into the nozzle passage plus prevents the injection of gas into the cylinder. The solenoid lifts the needle valve within the valve seat, plus gas beneath stress is transmitted inside the engine cylinder. Third-generation normal rail diesels employ piezoelectric injectors for improved precision, with gas pressures as much as 1,800 bar or 26,000 psi.
Direct gas injection fees over indirect injection systems: the injectors are exposed with more heat plus stress, thus more expensive contents plus higher-precision electronic administration systems are needed. However, the whole consumption is dry, creating this a fairly clean program.
All diesel machines have gas injected into the combustion room.
Earlier systems, relying about primitive injectors, usually injected into a sub-chamber shaped with swirl the compressed air plus boost combustion; this was termed as indirect injection. But, it was less thermally effective than the today universal direct injection inside that initiation of combustion occurs inside a depression inside the crown of the piston.
Throughout the early history of diesels, they were constantly fed with a mechanical pump with a little separate cylinder for every cylinder, feeding separate gas lines plus individual injectors. Many these pumps were in-line, though certain were rotary.
Many contemporary diesel motors employ Common rail or Unit Injector direct injection systems.
Common rail direct gas injection is a contemporary variant of direct gas injection program for petrol plus diesel machines.
On diesel machines, it qualities a high-pressure gas rail feeding individual solenoid valves, because opposed with low-pressure gas pump feeding device injectors. Third-generation normal rail diesels today feature piezoelectric injectors for improved precision, with gas pressures as much as 2,000 bar or 29,000 psi.
In gasoline motors, it is very chosen inside gasoline direct injection engine development.
The popular rail program prototype was developed inside the late 1960s by Robert Huber of Switzerland as well as the technologies further developed by Dr. Marco Ganser at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology inside Zurich, later of Ganser-Hydromag AG inside Oberägeri.
The initially lucrative use inside a manufacturing car started inside Japan by the mid-1990s. Dr. Shohei Itoh plus Masahiko Miyaki of the Denso Corporation, a Japanese automotive components maker, developed the popular rail gas program for thick duty cars plus turned it into useful utilize about their ECD-U2 common-rail program installed found on the Hino Rising Ranger truck plus available for general utilize inside 1995. Denso claims the initially commercial significant stress prevalent rail program inside 1995.
Modern usual rail systems, while functioning found on the same principle, are governed by an engine control device that opens every injector electronically instead of mechanically. This was thoroughly prototyped inside the 1990s with collaboration between Magneti Marelli, Centro Ricerche Fiat plus Elasis. After analysis plus development by the Fiat Group, the shape was acquired by the German organization Robert Bosch GmbH for completion of development plus refinement for mass-production. In hindsight, the sale was the tactical mistake for Fiat, because the unique technologies proven with be very successful. The business had small choice yet with market, still, because it was inside a bad financial state at the time plus lacked the resources with complete development about its own. In 1997 they extended its utilize for passenger vehicles. The initial passenger automobile which chosen the normal rail program was the 1997 model Alfa Romeo 156 2.4 JTD, plus later which same year Mercedes-Benz C 220 CDI.
Common rail motors have been chosen inside sea plus locomotive applications for several time. The Cooper-Bessemer GN-8 is an illustration of the hydraulically operated widespread rail diesel engine, sometimes known because a modified normal rail.
Vickers utilized prevalent rail systems inside submarine machines circa 1916. Doxford Engines Ltd. utilized a popular rail program whereby a multi-cylinder reciprocating gas pump produced a stress of around 600 bar, with all the gas being stored inside accumulator bottles. Pressure control was attained through an adjustable pump discharge stroke along with a "spill valve". Camshaft-operated mechanical timing valves were utilized to provide the spring-loaded Brice/CAV/Lucas injectors, that injected by the side of the cylinder into the room created involving the pistons. Early machines had a pair of timing cams, 1 for ahead running plus 1 for astern. Later motors had 2 injectors per cylinder, as well as the final series of constant-pressure turbocharged machines were fitted with 4 injectors per cylinder. This program was utilized for the injection of both diesel oil plus thick gas oil.
The well-known rail program is right for all kinds of road vehicles with diesel machines, ranging from city vehicles like the Fiat Nuova Panda with executive vehicles including the Audi A6.